“cbf” after the palette’s name means given palette is “colourblind friendly”. All single hue palettes are colourblind friendly.
In RGB gradients the ones denoted “linear” calculate value for the gradient prior to applying gamma function. In theory, that means the gradient should represent perceived increase in luminosity better.
Paul Tol’s palettes have been designed to be colourblind friendly as well as printer friendly. More information about them can be found at www.sron.nl/~pault.
ColorBrewer palettes have been designed by Cynthia Brewer for use in maps. More information about them, including interactive demo, can be found at colorbrewer2.org.
Soralized palette have been designed by Ethan Schoonover for use with terminal and GUI applications. As such, it has not been optimised for use in graphs or maps, but the library includes them nonetheless. More information about Solarized can be found at ethanschoonover.com/solarized.